Textile techniques are traditionally worked with fibers such as linen, cotton, wool and silk. But they can also be applied to metal. Working with precious or base metals, the techniques can be used to create jewelry, sculpture, objects and wall art.

 “Additional Textile Techniques & Artists” illustrates and examines the similarities and differences in the structures of weaving, twining, braiding, lace-making, knitting and crocheting, and features work by a variety of artists who interpret and apply these techniques.

Contemporary Applications of Textile Techniques in Metal:


Like Weaving, Twining and Soumak each use two sets of elements. Unlike Weaving, the elements do not just pass over and under each other. Instead, the weft encases the warp, but in different ways for each technique.

In Twining, a basketry technique, the wefts enclose each warp. The schematic shows two wefts that cross each other and then lock each warp in place by moving from over to under and under to over.

Mary Lee Hu – “Choker #70”

Mary twines with round gold wire, using 22kt for the weft and 18kt for the warp. Her signature style is to use two weft wires running parallel. She does not use a loom or a frame but rather holds the wires in her hands.

For more information:




Barbara Berk

Mary Lee Hu

Marilyn Moore

Barbara Patrick

Munya Avigail Upin



All pieces are copyright by the respective artists.






Twining & Soumak

Adapted from Annemarie Seiler-Baldinger, Textiles, A Classification of Techniques, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.


The cuff bracelet has 20 gauge sterling silver warps and 28 gauge wefts of colored golds (18kt and 22kt yellow, red and green). Barbara created patterns in the twining by skipping warps. 
(3” H x 5” W x 3” D)

Barbara Patrick – Untitled


Munya Avigail Upin

Twining in the round creates cylinders, like the candlesticks in this Menorah. Using fine silver round wire, Munya holds the 20 gauge warps and the 28 gauge wefts in her hands. She creates the cylinders by twining around either a wood dowel (if it is to be removed) or a sterling silver tube (if it is to remain in place, thereby strengthening the twined tube). Note the five patterns in the twining.
(4” H x 9” W x 1” D)


Marilyn Moore – “Torch”

Two coated copper wires, 32 gauge and 34 gauge, are treated as a single weft element, enabling Marilyn to blend colors easily. The warps are 14 gauge and 20 gauge round copper wire, with balled ends, some of which have been hammered flat.
(12” H x 6” diameter)


In Soumak, an ancient rug-weaving technique, the weft encircles each warp. The schematic shows the weft traveling over two warps and back around one, thereby wrapping around each of the warps in turn.



The thicker warp wire (20 gauge) is 18kt gold, providing the strength. The thinner weft wire (28 gauge) is 22kt gold, providing the malleability needed to do the tight wrapping that creates a dense weave. The warp is the skeleton, the weft is the skin. The framework that supports a traditional pin stem and catch is woven into the back band, thus fully integrating the attachment mechanism. (1.9375” H x 2.5” W x 0.75” D)


Barbara Berk – “Bow Brooch”


Barbara Berk – “Toccata”

Four meandering ribbon-like lines curl back on themselves and then interlace with each other. Seven feet of 18kt gold warp wire plus over 38 feet of 22kt gold weft wire created the 22-5/8 woven linear inches from which the pendant was formed. Sherris Cottier Shank carved the 9.92 ct Mexican Fire Opal drop. Three golden cultured pearls complete the bail. Exhibited in New West Coast Design: Jewelry + Metalwork, Velvet da Vinci, San Francisco, CA, 2008.   
(4.5” H x 1.75” W x 0.75” D)



Barbara Berk
 “Crown Pendant”

The wrapping is on the same face in each row, creating a different pattern on each woven face. The outside face of each of the 5 “arms” is the obverse pattern. The inside of each “arm” and the top of the Crown show the reverse pattern, in which the warp wires are more prominent. 22kt and 18kt gold, 14.07ct tourmaline, cultured pearls.
 (2” H x 1.5” W x 1.5” D)